Jupiter the Giant planet of the solar family

Jupiter the Giant planet of the solar family

JUPITER

Image of Jupiter

Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system and the fifth planet from the sun. The average distance of Jupiter from the sun is 747.07 million km. It is approximately 143,000 kilometers (about 89,000 miles) wide at its equator. More than 1,300 Earths would fit inside Jupiter. This planet is covered in thick red, brown, yellow, and white clouds. The clouds make the planet look like it has stripes. It is a big gas giant with a mass that covers All planets of the solar system by less than half of their masses. It is specifically made up of hydrogen and helium.

Jupitor is just like a star composition but doesn’t have much gravity to become a star. Jupiter has a solid core almost earth size made up of hydrogen and helium. Also, It has the biggest ocean on the planet amongst all planets of the solar system. This ocean has a composition of only liquid hydrogen due to the massive gravitational force of this planet. That forces compress the hydrogen gas into a liquid layer of hydrogen on the planet.

Atmosphere of Jupiter

The largest planetary Atmosphere in the Solar system is Jupiter’s atmosphere. It is mainly made up of hydrogen and helium and also trace amounts of methane, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and water. The rotation speed of Jupiter is much faster that creates strong jet streams, separating its clouds into dark belts and bright zones across long stretches. Jupiter’s fast rotation creates strong jet streams, separating its clouds into dark belts and bright zones across long stretches. The Great Red Spot, a swirling oval of clouds twice as wide as Earth, has been observed on the giant planet for more than 300 years.

Structure

The composition of Jupiter is similar to the sun but doesn’t have enough gravity to become a star. The atmospheric pressure of Jupiter is so huge that compresses the hydrogen gas into a liquid. It is the biggest Ocean in the solar system that is fully made up of liquid hydrogen. This ocean can cover the whole earth’s surface. Jupiter’s fast rotation is thought to drive electrical currents in this region, generating the planet’s powerful magnetic field. It is still unclear if deeper down, Jupiter has a central core of solid material or if it may be a thick, super-hot and dense soup. It could be up to 90,032 degrees Fahrenheit (50,000 degrees Celsius) down there, made mostly of iron and silicate minerals (similar to quartz).

Jupiter’s Orbit & Rotation

  • Jupiter completes their Rotation in 9 hours 55 minutes. A day of Jupiter is 10 hours less than half of the earth’s day.
  • Jupiter’s equatorial cloud-tops are moving nearly 28,000 miles per hour.
  • It takes 4332.52 earth days to complete its full orbit around the sun.
  • The average orbital velocity of Jupiter is 47052 km/h.

Size and Volume of Jupiter

  • The radius of Jupiter is 69911 km that is 11 times the Earth’s radius.
  • The volume of Jupiter is 1.43128 x 1015 cubic km. This volume size can fit 1300 earth into it.
  • The surface area of Jupiter is 61.43 billion km2.
  • The mass of Jupiter is 1.9× 1027kg. It is equivalent to 318 times of earth masses even 2.5 times of all planets in the solar system.

The Jupiter’s moons

Scientists think there could be 79 moons of Jupiter or maybe more than this number. There are four big moons of Jupiter which are quite interesting to the scientist for observing and research. These moons are perfect in their planetary shapes. El, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto are the four biggest moon of the Jupitor.

Io

Io the volcanic moon of the jupitor
A NASA spacecraft sees a volcanic explosion on Jupiter’s third-largest moon. Image Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

Io is the most volcanically active body in the solar system. Io’s surface is covered by sulfur in different colorful forms. As Io travels in its slightly elliptical orbit, Jupiter’s immense gravity causes “tides” in the solid surface that rise 300 feet (100 meters) high on Io, generating enough heat for volcanic activity and to drive off any water. Io’s volcanoes are driven by hot silicate magma. The interiors of Io has layered structure like the Earth. It has a core, and a mantle of at least partially molten rock, topped by a crust of solid rock coated with sulfur compounds.

Europa

The JUPITOR's moon Europa
Europa the JUPITOR’s moon Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SETI Institute

Europa’s surface is mostly water ice, and there is evidence that it may be covering an ocean of water or slushy ice beneath. Europa is thought to have twice as much water as does Earth. This moon intrigues astrobiologists because of its potential for having a “habitable zone.” Life forms have been found thriving near subterranean volcanoes on Earth and in other extreme locations that may be analogues to what may exist on Europa. It has layered structure like the Earth. Europa has a core; a rock envelope around the core; a thick, soft ice layer; and a thin crust of impure water ice. It is globally subsurface water layer probably lies just below the icy crust of the Jupiter’s.

Ganymede

Ganymede the largest moon of the solar system
Ganymede the JUPITOR’s moon| image credit to Nasa

It is the largest moon in the solar system (larger than the planet Mercury) and is the only moon known to have its own internally generated magnetic field. The interior of it is a layered structure like the Earth. It has a core; a rock envelope around the core; a thick, soft ice layer; and a thin crust of impure water ice.

Callisto

Second largest moon of Jupiter's
Callisto moon of Jupiter’s | image credit/NASA/JPL

It is Jupiter’s second-largest moon and the third-largest moon in our solar system. Its surface is the most heavily cratered of any object in our solar system. Its surface is extremely heavily cratered and ancient—a visible record of events from the early history of the solar system. However, the very few small craters on Callisto indicate a small degree of current surface activity.

How did Jupiter save the earth from asteroids?

Jupiter has a strong magnetic field that is a big assistance to our Earth to protect from asteroids. In our solar system, Jupiter, with its enormous gravitational field, plays an important protective role. By deflecting comets and asteroids that might otherwise hit Earth, Jupiter has helped to create a more stable environment for life to evolve here. The strong magnetic fields of Jupiter protect the earth by deflecting the space object from the path to Earth.

Comparison between the earth and Jupiter

The Volume of Jupiter can fit 1300 of the earth itself. It completes its one rotation in 10 hours while the earth takes 24 hrs. The mass of Jupiter is 318 times of Earth. It has 2.8-time gravity(24.79 m/s square) to the earth.

Comparison between the Earth and Jupiter
Jupiter vs the earth.

The Diamonds rain in the Jupiter

Jupiter is a big gas giant planet even rotating at high speed that creates enormous electricity in its atmosphere. This electricity resulted in heavy lightning in the interior of the atmosphere. The atmosphere of Jupiter has little proportion of methane. Hence, This methane sparks with lightning and turns into soot (carbon) even the purest form of carbon such as the diamond. Carbon or diamond immediately formed during lightning spark with methane in the atmosphere then it falls in the Jupiter ocean from the atmosphere. This phenomenon is called Diamond rain in Jupiter.

Additional of Jupiter

The overview of Jupiter by nasa

Moons of jupitor

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